Satirical magazines of Turkey have a long tradition, with the first magazine (Diyojen) published in 1869. There are currently around 20 satirical magazines 22; the leading ones are Penguen (70,000 weekly circulation), LeMan (50,000) and Uykusuz.
Historical examples include Oğuz Aral's magazine Gırgır (which reached a circulation of 500,000 in the 1970s) and Marko Paşa (launched 1946). Others include L-Manyak and Lombak.
- ^ Esra Maden, Today's Zaman, 12 October 2008, Cartoons tell political journey of Turkey
- ^ Jens Wiesner, 12 November 2012, Orient Express Reporter Tripled, Leman, Penguen or Uykusuz: Turkey’s comic books vs. Erdoğan
- ^ Fazıla Mat, 8 April 2010, balcanicaucaso.org, Turkish humor